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What is biometric and types of biometric?

Humans are identified with the help of biometric devices. While the earliest description of using biometrics dates back to 500 BC in the Babylonian Empire, humans have been identifying people by biometrics since that time. The first recorded use of a biometric identification system was in Paris, France in the 1800s.

Alphonse Bertillon developed a method of specific body measurements to classify and compare criminals. Although the system was far from perfect, it opened the way for further development in using unique biological characteristics to authenticate identity. In this article you will get complete information about biometrics. In this, it will be told what is biometrics, how it works, how many types are there and what are its uses and many other information will be given.


what is biometrics?

Biometric is a type of device by which biological measurement of any person is done. Measurement of physical characteristics that can be used to identify individuals. For example, fingerprint mapping, facial recognition and retina scanning are done with the help of biometric technology.

Biometrics is a measurement and calculation technology that makes measurements and calculations of human characteristics related to the body. Biometrics are used in computer science for identification and access control. It is also used to identify a particular person who is under surveillance. Biometrics are growing as an advanced layer for many personal and enterprise security systems.

Biometrics is made up of 'Bio' and 'Metrics'. Bio means life and metrics means measurement. Biometrics is widely used for security purposes as it provides a high level of accuracy to identify an individual.

Nowadays, the role of biometric identification is increasing in our everyday security. Even in the case of twins, physical characteristics are relatively stable and different from individual to individual. A unique biometric identification of each individual can be used to replace password systems for computers, phones, and rooms and buildings with restricted access.

Once biometric data is captured and mapped, it is stored to match future access attempts. Most of the time, this data is encrypted and kept within the device or stored on a remote server.

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What are the uses of Biometrics?

Biometric technology has developed very rapidly in recent years. Hardly a day goes by when we do not come into contact with biometric technology in some form or the other. Biometrics are being used everywhere from unlocking your phone to finding out the day's weather to safely boarding a flight.

Biometric technology is all around us. As biometric technology continues to evolve further, we are seeing the most common uses of biometrics in everyday life. Biometrics are mainly used in all these places:
  • Home Assistant Biometric
  • Biometric use in Banking
  • Schools Biometric
  • Building Access
  • Government premises
  • Airport Security
  • Law Enforcement
  • Mobile Access and Authentication
  • Public Transport
  • Blood Banks

Home Assistant Biometric : For anyone familiar with home assistants like Google Home, Alexa, and Siri, all of these devices already have features to use voice recognition as a biometric identifier. Google Assistant, which runs on Google Home as well as Android devices, is compatible with a wide range of IoT (Internet of Things) devices, including light bulbs, door locks, security cameras, security lights, and more.

Biometric use in Banking : The banking sector is increasingly using biometrics in various services to provide a more convenient experience to customers. Nowadays most of the banks have started testing facial recognition in ATMs. Facial recognition will now be used as an additional layer of security to authenticate that the card owner is the right person using their card, providing greater convenience to the bank's customers.

Schools Biometric : Today most countries have already implemented biometric technology in school campuses. This is also a growing new technology in the field of education. Biometrics helps school administration by increasing security and making the enrollment process more efficient.

As well as ensuring that only students and authorized guardians gain entry to school buildings, biometric data can be used for a number of purposes such as recording student attendance, checking out library books or even ​to pay for the meal. Biometrics used for all these activities.

Building Access : Whether it's your own home or office, workplace biometric technology is now commonly used as a means of allowing access inside a building, or to specific areas of a building. Biometrics brings many benefits when it comes to identity control. Using facial or iris recognition technology to control access to secure areas within a building can provide a layered experience of security.

Government premises : Government agencies also use biometrics to identify and authenticate individuals at international borders. In some countries, visa applicants are required to provide biometric samples to be searched against criminal databases and migration records. Biometrics are more reliable for government agencies to verify identity than biometric data in paper-based documents.

Airport Security : Today, biometric technology has been properly implemented at airports. Airports around the world have a common goal to make travel through airports more convenient. Biometric technology to authenticate the identity of passengers has been used for many years at some large and major airports around the world and the use of this technology is becoming more widespread for security reasons.

Law Enforcement : Biometrics are widely used in law enforcement, with agencies such as the police and Interpol using biometrics in criminal investigations. The most common biometric technologies used by them to identify criminals are fingerprints, iris and facial recognition, their gait and voice.

Mobile Access and Authentication : Perhaps the most common use of biometric technology in the modern era is for security on smartphones. Apple Inc. first introduced the Touch ID solution for accessing mobiles using fingerprint recognition technology and since then mobile phone security today has evolved to use multiple biometric technologies including facial recognition, iris recognition and voice recognition. Features like identification are included.

Public Transport : The adoption of biometric technology in public transportation is still in its early stages, even though potential future uses within public transportation are wide-ranging and include enhancing security and customer experience. Biometric technology also includes the use of smart ID cards and smart ticketing, which are issued to match the person using facial recognition. Biometric features are being used on transport to access transport systems to allow safe travel and simplify the process of ticketing and passenger management.

Blood Banks : When it comes to blood donation, the identity of the person is extremely important. Earlier blood donors were issued cards containing all the necessary information. However, this data is now often stored digitally – with blood donors using fingerprint or iris recognition to access their vital details when the correct person details are found. The use of biometric identifiers eliminates the risk of duplicate data entry problems.

Types of Biometric

From a computer and security perspective, biometrics identifies a person by measuring their biological characteristics. Compared to digital passwords, this type of system is more difficult to counterfeit because it is unique to each individual.

Other common ways biometric scanners scan are a person's fingure, face, retina and iris. Below is a list of all known types of biometric devices used to input biometric data into a computer. This input data is known as a biometric identifier, which is a physical, chemical or behavioral characteristic. The types of biometrics are:

  • Finger scanner
  • Hand scanner
  • Face scanner
  • Retina scanner or iris scanner
  • Signature verification system
  • Vein recognition
  • Voice scanner

Finger scanner : Fingerprint identification is one of the oldest and effective biometrics method as fingerprints have long been considered an accurate and primary identification method. Because the fingerprints of all persons are not the same. Biometric finger scanner identifies a person through his fingerprint.

This is a very secure way to identify a person. However, cheaper and less effective fingerprint scanners can be fooled in a number of ways. But a high quality scanner works accurately.

Hand scanner : Hands are scanned with biometric hand scanner. Like a person's fingerprint, the palm of his hand is also a unique part of the body. Biometric hand scanner or hand geometry system is a device that identifies a person by the palm of his hand.

Face scanner : Fingerprint identification is one of the oldest and effective biometrics method as fingerprints have long been considered an accurate and primary identification method. Because the fingerprints of all persons are not the same. Biometric finger scanner identifies a person through his fingerprint. This is a very secure way of identifying a person. However, cheaper and less effective fingerprint scanners can be fooled in a number of ways. But a high quality scanner works accurately.

Retina scanner or iris scanner : Biometric retina or IRIS scanner identifies a person by scanning their eye's IRIS or retina. The retina scanner is one of the more secure biometric authentication schemes as there is no known way to mimic the retina or iris yet available. IRIS patterns and colors are different in each person's eyes.

Signature verification system : Signature verification system that recognizes the shape of a person's handwritten signature as identity. The basic goal of a handwritten signature is to provide an accurate way to verify a person's identity and how they signed their name. Handwritten biometric identification is the process of identifying the author of a given mark based on the handwritten signature style.

Vein recognition : Vein recognition is one of the types of biometrics, it is used to classify people and verify their identity. It is a detection technology that works on the unique patterns of human blood vessels. This pattern is found under the skin of a human finger.

This method may be more secure than fingerprint identification, as the veins under the skin cannot be altered, making this method more difficult to counterfeit than fingerprints.

Voice scanner : Biometric voice scanner is a voice analysis scanner or voice verification system that is used to mathematically identify a person's voice. These scanners help to further improve security, but have the drawback that some less sophisticated scanners can be misused by using tape recording.

What is the History of Biometric?

The oldest and most basic example of recognition used by humans is face recognition. Since the beginning of civilization, humans have used faces on body parts to identify known (familiar) and unknown (unfamiliar) individuals. As human populations grew and more convenient methods of travel became available, many new individuals were incorporated into small communities.

This simple task of identification became more and more challenging. The concept of human-to-human recognition is also seen in behavior-oriented biometrics such as voice and gait recognition from conversations. Humans use these natural characteristics, somewhat unconsciously, to recognize familiar individuals on an everyday basis.

By about the mid-1800s, as the Industrial Revolution led to rapid growth in cities, there was a formally recognized need to identify people who worked in industry. Merchants and officials were faced with increasingly larger and more mobile populations and could no longer rely solely on their experiences and local knowledge for identification.

Handprint images were first recorded for identification purposes in 1858. A trail of hand images was recorded to distinguish employees from others and verify that they were employees when pay day arrived. This was the first recorded systematic capture of hand and fingerprints taken concurrently for identification purposes.

In the 1870s, Alphonse Bertillon developed an anthropometry system to identify individuals. His system created a method of identifying individuals based on detailed records of their body measurements, physical descriptions, and photographs. Often criminals used to give different aliases when arrested, hence with this system the criminals will change their name but will not be able to change the records of all the elements of their body.

In 1892 Sir Francis Galton wrote a detailed study of fingerprints in which he presented a new classification system using all ten fingerprints. In 1896 Sir Edward Henry developed the fingerprint classification system.

The first semi-automatic facial recognition system was developed by Woodrow W. Bledsoe in the 1960s under contract for the US government. The first commercial hand biometrics recognition systems became available in the early 1970s, arguably the first biometric device to become commercially available since the initial deployment of fingerprinting in the late 1960s.

Year 1988 – The first semi-automatic facial recognition system is deployed. In 1994 – The first IRIS recognition algorithm was patented. Dr. John Dougman was awarded a patent for his IRIS recognition algorithm. In 2011 – Biometric identification was used to identify the body of Osama bin Laden. 2013 – Apple incorporated fingerprint scanners into consumer-targeted smartphones. Apple Inc has provided Touch ID fingerprint recognition feature in its mobile devices. It was designed and released by Apple Inc.

Which type of device is Biometrics?

Biometric is an input device. Biometric is an input device. For example, biological measurements are taken through biometrics, which includes things like fingerprints, facial recognition, retina scans, all this data is input inside the computer. Any device which connects to a computer and provides input data to the computer is called an input device, similarly biometric is an input device.

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