Data Communication : Complete Information - Technopediasite

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Thursday, November 25, 2021

Data Communication : Complete Information

What is data communication? : We all have often heard discussing about data communication, but today in this article we are going to get complete information about data communication. What is Data Communication? What is its purpose? What is data communication link etc. Data communication is the exchange of data (in 0 and 1 form) between two devices through a transmission medium.

If we talk about data communication in other words, then understand that as we use computer, computer is used to generate information. The information it generates is not useful in itself. This information should be given to the right person at the right time. Often information must be transmitted from one place to another. This process is called Data Communication.

Data Communication


What is Data Communication?

Data communication play an active role of transporting data from one point to another. Networks are communication systems designed to send information from an origin point to a destination point. A data communication system perform the work of data collection from a remote location through a data transmission circuit, and then outputs the processed result to a required location.

This is not a new word, the transmission of any information or goods from one place to another is called data communication, In ancient times, data communication i.e. data communication was done by pigeon. Which used to take someone's letter from one place to another. After that the vehicle started being used for data communication but it used to take a long time and it used to take few days or even few months for any data to reach from person to person but now in the blink of an eye there is no one. Data or signals travel from one place to another places.

This is not the case in the present time, technology has developed and today other types of technology are used for data communication in the modern world. At present, Ships, Airplane, Rocket, Satellite and many other complex systems depend on Communication System for their Navigation System and through this they transfer their data from one place to another.

Communication means exchanging information. The process by which data, instructions and information from one computer reach other computers is called data communication. In data communication, digital or analog data is transferred between two or more computers, which are connected by communication channels. Data is transported from one place to another in the form of signals.

I hope you all now know what is data communication. Now I will further discuss how many types of data communication are there.

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Types of  Data Communication

There are three types of data communication:

1. Simplex Channel 

In this, the flow of data is always in one direction, that is, this channel can communicate data in only one direction. Through this channel only one communication device can send information and another communication device can only receive information. The best example to understand this is, radio signals reach the listeners from the radio stations, but they do not go back to the radio stations from the listeners, like from A to B

Simplex Channel

Actually, a different type of transmission of data from one point to another is called transmission mode. That's why we say that in Simplex mode the communication can be in only one direction. The receiver system receives the data or signal from the transmitting device.

2. Half Duplex Channel

In this channel, the flow of data occurs in both the directions, but at a time only one direction of data can flow. The best example of a telephone line is to understand, in a telephone line, there is communication of data in only one direction at a time. For example, from point-A to point-B or from point-B to point-A
Half duplex transmission mode

It is also a mode of data transmission, in half-duplex mode communication  occurs in both directions, but only in one direction at a time.

3. Full Duplex Channel

In this channel the communication of data takes place in both the directions. Both channels can exchange data continuously. For example, data travel in wireless system can happen at the same time simultaneously in both directions. For example, from point-A to point-B and from point-B to point-A

Full duplex communication

It is a mode of data transmission, in full-duplex mode the communication takes place in both directions at the same time.

Types of Data Communication Based on Bandwidth

Actually bandwidth is a term used to describe the data-handling capacity of a communication system. Bandwidth is the range of frequencies that are available for data transmission.

1.Narrowband: The narrowband band handles low data volumes. The data transmission rate ranges from 50 cps to 64kbps. Low speed devices are used for narrowband communication. 

2.Voiceband: Voiceband handles medium data transmission volumes between 300 and 9600 baud. They are mainly used for telephone voice communication, hence it is called voiceband.

3.Broadband: Broadband handles very large data volumes. Their data transmission rate is 1 million baud or more. High speed data analysis and satellite communication are examples of broadband communication.

Components of Data Communication

When data is transmitted from one place to another, there are main five components involved for the data transmission–

Transmitter: The transmitter device sends the message. It can be any devices like- computer, workstation, telephone handset, video camera and anything else. Transmitter an electronic device that produces radio waves with the help of an antenna. Transmitter is used in telecommunication to produce and transmit radio waves. Sending is done with the help of message transmitter device.

Receiver: Receiver receives the data sent by the transmitter. Receiver can also be a telephone handset, computer, workstation, television, and anything else. In communication systems, the message sent by the transmitter is received by the receiver.

Message: A message is a transmission (data) that is to be communicated. It can contain text, numbers, images, sound, or video, or whatever. Message Text, Numbers, Signs, Symbols, Images, Sound, Video these all information is data.

Medium: Transmission of data performed by a physical path through which a data travels from sender to receiver that path is called the transmission medium. It can be optical fiber, twisted pair wire, coaxial cable, laser or radio wave (terrestrial or satellite microwave).

Transmission Medium through which we send data from one place to another is called Transmission Medium. The transmission medium is divided into few major parts, the first being unshielded twisted pair cable, shielded twisted pair and fiber optical cable etc.

Protocol: Actually, there is no one specific rule of protocol, it is a set of rules that govern the data communication. It is representative of an agreement between communication devices. Without the protocol, two devices can connect but cannot communicate, just as a person who understands Japanese will not understand the English language.

There is a set of rules and guidelines for doing data communication. which are routinely defined for each step and process during the communication between two or more computers. To handle the data successfully, the network has to follow these rules smoothly.

Data Communication Effectiveness Characteristics

Data communication system effectiveness depends on three characteristics:

1. Delivery: The system should distribute the data to the correct destination. This data must be received by the particular device or only by user.

2. Accuracy: Data correctly must deliver by the system  . If the data is changed in transmission then it is unusable.

3.Timeliness: The system should deliver the data on time. Late-delivered data is useless. In the case of video, audio and voice data, being delivered on time means data is produced as the data is distributed across the order in the same order, and without delay.

Purpose of data communication

The various data communication techniques that are currently in wide use gradually evolved to either improve upon the already existing data communication techniques or to replace them with better alternatives and features. Then data communication improved day by day during the selection of communication system such as baud rate, modem, router, LAN, WAN, TCP/IP, ISDN. Therefore, it becomes necessary to review and understand these terms and the evolution of data communication methods.

The main purpose of data communication and networking is exchange of data. It can performed a seamless exchange of data between any two destination in the world. This exchange of data can performed over a computer network. Data refers to the raw facts that are collected whereas information refers to the processed data which enables us to make decisions.

Benefits of Data Communication

• Saving time compared to sending data physically.
• Making full use of the processing speed and storage capacity of modern computers.
• Secure transfer of important data via encryption.
• Prevent file copying.
• Low cost data transmission.

Types of data communication media

A medium is used for the data communication from a computer to another computer or from a terminal to a computer, such type of connecting medium is called a communication line or data link. There are two types of medium used for the data transmission-

1. Guided Media or Wired Technologies
2. Unguided  Media or Wireless Technologies

1. Guided Media or Wired Technologies : In Guided Media, data signals flow through wires. Data communication through these wires takes place through a particular path. Wires can be made of copper, tin or silver. These are of three types-

(a) Ethernet Cable or Twisted Pair
(b) Coaxial Cable
(c) Fiber Optic Cable

Data transmission medium



(a) Ethernet Cable or Twisted Pair : In this type of cable, the wires are twisted, over which a bad conductor and another layer of outer covering (called a jacket) is attached. One of the two wires is used to transmit the signals to the receiver and the other for earthing. This cable is used for short distance data communication. It is also used for Local Area Network (LAN).

(b) Coaxial Cable : High frequency data is transmitted through this cable. It is the only medium of communication of high quality. This wire is carried over land or under the sea. This cable has a solid wire at its center, which is surrounded by a bad conductor wire. A wire mesh is made over this bad conductor wire, on which there is then a layer of bad conductor. This wire is relatively expensive, but it has the ability to transmit more data. It is used in Television Network.

(c) Fiber Optic Cable : This is a new technology, in which instead of metal wires, special types of glass or plastic fibers are used for data communication. It is only light and fast moving. This cable widely used for telecommunication network and networking. To get more information about optical fiber, open the link given below-


2. Unguided  Media or Wireless Technologies

This technology is used for data communication due to the cost of cable and its maintenance cost is high. In unguided media, the data flow is through non-wireless communication media. The flow of data in these media is through waves. Since data communication in this medium takes place without wires (by waves), it is called 'Unguided Media or Wireless Technology'. The details of some Unguided Media are as follows-

(a) Radio Wave Transmission : When two Nodes exchange data through radio frequencies, based on radio frequency communication is called radio wave transmission. These radio waves are omni directional and can be used for long distance communication. Radio wave transmission is very easy installation and cheaper than wired technology and provides mobility. But, rain, dust etc. have a bad effect on it.

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(b) Microwave Transmission : Signals in this system are transmitted openly (without any medium) like radio signals. In this system, data or information is exchanged through frequencies. We already familiar that microwaves are electromagnetic waves with frequency ranges from about 0.3 GHz to 300 GHz. It is uni-directional. It provides faster communication than co-axial cable. It has good bandwidth but it is affected by rain, dust etc. (ie bad weather). It is widely used for Cellular Network and Television Broadcasting.

(c) Infrared wave Transmission : Infrared wave is a high frequency wave used for short distance communication. These waves cannot pass through solid-objects such as walls etc. Mainly, it is used in TV Remote, Wireless Speaker etc.

(d) Satellite Communication : Satellite communication is a high speed data communication medium. Now these days it is the most ideal communication medium for long distance communication. Satellites located in space send signals from the station located on the ground and the satellite would expand that signal and send it back to another distant station. A large amount of data can be sent by this system to the maximum distance. It is used in Signals for Phone, TV, and Internet etc.

Last Word

Dear friends, I have tried my best to give complete information related to data communication. Related links have also been given for your convenience, from which you can open and get complete information. I hope you all have liked this article Data Communication very much. If you agree and are satisfied with the given information, then do like and share.

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