Why Wireless Communication Network? - Technopediasite

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Saturday, February 16, 2019

Why Wireless Communication Network?

Why Wireless Communication Network?: A thorough better understanding of current cabled communications network technology is very helpful to the learner of wireless communications.Wireless applications function in much the same way as their cabled counterparts. The primary difference is the absence of the physical cable. Thus many of the same considerations must be taken into account to design, install, and implement either cabled or wireless solutions.
Traditional cabled environments consist of one primary element a physical connection between two devices. The intended use of the application determines the type and number of devices. The simplest network, a peer-to-peer local area network (LAN), consists of two computers connected by a single cable. Connecting an Ethernet hub or switch directly to each of the two computers creates a star network topology.
Why wireless communication better than cabled communication
Wireless Communication Network

Application of Wireless Communication Network

As cabled communication network same characteristics remain in a wireless communication network environment. PTP links need to be created, either permanently or virtually, to establish communications between devices. In most cases, the hubs or access points (APs) utilize traditional cabled connections to the horizontal cross-connect (floor distributor), intermediate cross-connect (building distributor), and main cross-connect (campus distributor).

As wireless technologies evolve, many applications will emerge that can fully take advantage of the absence of physical connections. Other than the obvious mobility of wireless devices, one main advantage is the ability to easily get around obstacles that commonly hinder cabled implementations.

Alternative Backbone

Backbones, which traditionally consisted of large pair counts of balanced twisted-pair for
voice and singlemode or multimode optical fiber strands, can be replaced with radio waves
over the air, simplifying installation and implementation in congested areas.

Industrial applications for backbones could include large manufacturing areas, which are
filled with movable production lines, cranes, and other machinery that make installation of
cabling difficult and time consuming. Additionally, many such installations must be made
after hours to avoid impeding production schedules.

Utilizing wireless backbones eliminates the need to move cabling whenever modifications are made to the structure and layout. If the wireless devices need to be moved, it will still be easier and faster than redesigning the cable path of a horizontal backbone that can measure up to 91 m (300 ft). In a campus environment, creating new backbones or increasing capacity can be achieved quickly with wireless technology. 

Typical campus ductbanks are filled with cabling that could be several generations old. In many instances, it is either impractical or impossible to remove old cabling to create capacity for new requirements, as cabling may be either unlabeled or intertwined and not feasible to remove. Rooftops generally have ample space for the installation of antennas to create wireless connections.

Temporary Installations

For temporary installations, wireless equipment can be installed and implemented quickly and easily removed and reinstalled at another facility. Aerial and direct-buried cable to temporary buildings or trailers may be damaged either in installation or while in the ground. Permits and rights-of-way may be required, and care will need to be taken to maintain required clearances from any existing obstacles.

Network Expansion

Expansion of existing Ethernet LANs is another application that can benefit from wireless
technology. It may be less expensive and easier to add a single AP and wireless network
interface card to a group of computers than to install cabling to cubicles or offices. This can
be for permanent or temporary applications. Areas that are subject to frequent changes (office layouts, cubicle moves, etc.) would realize the most cost and time savings from the
implementation of wireless technology.

Two-Way Radio possible only in Wireless Communication Network

Two-way radio has evolved from basic walkie-talkies, like those used by hunters and hikers,
into larger systems with a base and unit-to-unit communications, utilized by municipal public
safety departments and public and private transportation companies (e.g., cab and bus
services).

Cellular telephone service providers are incorporating push-to-talk services utilizing
specialized telephones with built-in walkie-talkie features. These communications make
instant connection to the called party possible.

Licensed Versus Unlicensed Spectrum Use

Many applications of two-way radio communications utilize the unlicensed spectrum;
therefore, no special licensing is required. Consumers can purchase any number of two-way
radios, make sure they are all on the same channel, and communications can take place at
distances of up to 3.2 km (2 mi). Since these are not licensed and operate at very low power
levels, communications is generally only reliable at short distances.

Licensed two-way communications rely on either public or private radio systems to replicate
signals and reach across a city or county. This hardware may be either wholly owned or
leased from a service provider, much like a cellular telephone service.

These are connectionless channels—the communications medium is not reserved and a
channel is created each time a push-to-talk conversation is initialized. Because the
communications channel runs from antenna to antenna, LOS must be maintained for the
channel to remain open.

Two-Way Radio Advantages and Disadvantages

Two-way radios can be inexpensive and serve many purposes (e.g., construction sites, large campus environments, maintenance crews). Licensing fees and hardware costs may be much less than having to equip a workforce with cellular telephones. Two-way radios can be quicker in establishing communications and may work where other forms of communication do not.

However, using a private system places the burden of maintenance and support on the owner. Communications may be spotty or have multiple dead zones. Two-way radios can be purchased that are impact resistant, but are fragile pieces of equipment that may not stand up to daily use requirements. Backup communications may be required to overcome these disadvantages.

Local Area Network (LAN)

While cellular telephones may be the most predominant use of wireless technology, the
replacement of traditional cabled LANs would be the most common application in the data
communications industry. WLANs likely will equal their cabled counterparts in every aspect,
from size to design and maintenance considerations.

Small Office, Home Office (SOHO)

WLAN utilization in the SOHO environment is being rapidly adopted. Previously, SOHO implementation required installation of cabling to all computers, which could have been difficult in older homes and offices. External connections required local exchange carrier involvement, with either intermediate services digital network or 56k line installation. Extensive knowledge of router installation also was required, and the hardware could be expensive. This contrasts with ever-present broadband and off-the-shelf WLAN components. These components are supported by autodetection software that further simplifies network establishment.

Commercial

Multiple considerations within a commercial application of WLANs complicate the implementation. The designer must consider these issues when developing the network design.

Speed

One main limitation to WLANs is speed. Cabled technologies have evolved over the years to take advantage of the bandwidth capabilities of balanced twisted-pair cable with continually increasing throughput. Current WLAN speeds are no match for Gigabit Ethernet, and 10Gigabit Ethernet over balanced twisted-pair has already been proposed.

Environment

Implementation of WLAN segments in existing buildings must overcome obstructions and obstacles that do not affect traditional cabled LANs. WLANs have to take into account a building’s composition. The effects of building components (metal, concrete, masonry) may not be evident until after the installation or extensive testing.  The WLAN also must be designed within the parameters of current Ethernet hardware requirements. If a building’s structure requires extensive or erratic installation and placement of wireless antennas and APs, it may create a confusing network topology. If this is not carefully documented, it can make troubleshooting and alterations difficult or impossible to complete.

Security

Security in a WLAN environment is another concern. The innate factor of RF propagation beyond the owner’s walls introduces access issues unique to the wireless environment. A system administrator must implement security measures that eliminate the possibility for access by unauthorized intruders. Internal employees also may compromise the security of the network by installing rogue hubs. Employees easily can double the network connections in their office by installing a wireless hub, but this opens up the network to intruders and can seriously slow down network performance.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

The use of wireless technology for WAN implementation can reduce costs by eliminating the need for long-distance cabling installation. Long-distance lasers can transmit data efficiently but require LOS between nodes. In certain geographic regions wireless WAN transmitters can be placed miles apart, limited only by the curvature of the Earth. Installation of devices every 16 km (10 mi) is far more economical than installation of 16 km (10 mi) of balanced twisted pair optical fiber cable.

Personal Area Network (PAN)

PANs are designed to allow users of personal computers and other stationary and mobile devices to take advantage of wireless communications in a confined area. This area can be an office, cubicle, apartment, automobile, home, or any other area considered personal space. The intent of the confinement is to eliminate, or at least control, the interference between objects in individual PANs. This interference can range from picking up a neighbor’s telephone conversation on a wireless telephone to a neighbor’s typing on a wireless computer keyboard. For a detailed discussion of PANs and wireless technologies implemented within them.

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

MANs are WANs confined to a specific geographic area. MANs allow area businesses and
organizations to take advantage of common telecommunications technology to connect
networks between buildings and campuses. As such, they have many of the issues common
within both WLANs and WWANs. Much planning and administrative support is necessary to
maintain operations and insure security and data integrity.

MAN design is impacted by:
➥Bandwidth requirements.
➥Physical environmental factors (e.g., barriers, weather).
➥RF environmental factors (e.g., interference from power plant).
When planning a MAN, consider:
➥Hardware budget.
➥Maintenance and support budget.
➥Design and planning costs.
➥Security measures.
➥Resource utilization and cost allocation methods for multiuser MANs.

1 comment:

  1. When someone connect on wireless network like public wi-fi, there is always risk to their private details or someone can track our activity. So using a vpn can save from these risks. That's why i always use a vpn which i got from VPN for Android , to save my details from getting tracked by hiding my IP.

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