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WAN : Wide Area Network Functions

WAN : In this article, let us try to know what is WAN network, what is its function, what are the advantages and disadvantages of this network and we will discuss some more special points. Many LANs are connected beyond the metropolitan area where service is typically provided by circuits leased from suppliers such as long-distance telephone carriers (AT&T, MCI,VSNL), specialized companies (Tymnet, Telenet), or satellite system providers (GTE).

When we take the full name of WAN, it is called Wide Area Network. Its area (distance coverage) is the largest. By using this network we can connect one country with other countries. The best example of this network is the Internet, using which in today's time we all use services like email service, sharing, banking service, ticket booking, downloading files, etc. It's all possible only due to WAN network. Now let us talk further what is WAN network.


What is WAN Network?

As I have written above, the full name of WAN is Wide Area Network, WAN is a network that is used for networking with a very large geographical area such as a city, another city or a country with another country. Works. A very suitable example of a WAN network is the Internet. Thus we can say that the Internet is the largest WAN network.

Many LAN networks MAN networks are connected to form a WAN network. WAN is spread all over the country or all over the world. The coverage area of ​​this network is more than all the other networks.

For example, if the offices of any one company are present in different cities and LAN network is also made in all the offices, then we can make a big network WAN by connecting the LAN networks of all these offices. In this way, we can communicate all the computers present in the LAN network of one city office with all the computers present in the LAN network of the office of another city.

Complete information has been given in the following article about LAN network, by opening the link, you can get complete information-

Why WAN Known as Longest Network?

According to distance coverage WAN is larger network than LAN and MAN, due to the large WAN network, it keeps computers from all over the globe connected. Let me tell you that sometimes WAN is also called LAN of LANS. The specialty of this network is that it has low DATA rate, but covers more distance.

There are two types of WAN: 1. Enterprise WAN and 2. Global WAN. Wide Area Network mostly use public networks to connect the Computers such as telephone lines, leased lines and satellites.

Some other Wide Area Networks are also available like - public packet network, Banking networks, Large Corporate network, Military networks,  Railway reservation network and finally Airline Reservation network.

Those companies which are providing network facility through WAN are called network service providers. They are called the core of the Internet. It is consider that WAN is most expensive network. Because some advanced technology is used in it. Like DWDM,SDH, SONET, Frame relay and ATM.

WAN has its own special feature, such as a large geographical area like two countries can be connected to this network, it is owned by both public and private. On the other hand we also believe that this network is difficult to install and maintain, and the data transmission speed is slow.

It is worth remembering especially two things here - Wide Area Network or this WAN  network covers a geographical area like, metropolis, state, continent or country, its range is bigger than LAN and MAN. Or rather, it has the highest range.

Another important point is that WAN is said to be the most expensive network because it uses modern technology and it is very expensive and difficult to set up. Now let's talk about the advantages and disadvantages of this WAN network.

This network is geographically spread all over the world. Because it is the largest network, it is called wide area network. Which connects all the computers on our earth and keeps them connected. This network can cover maximum distance. One of the best examples of our wide area network is the Internet.

Internet is spread all over the world. The internet we use in our homes in computers. It is run through WAN. Internet connection installed in your homes. It is a public network used.

For example, telephone lines, leased lines, etc., the company provides the facility of WAN. Where are they called NSP Network Service Providers. These network providers are also considered the core of the Internet. WAN is also called as expensive network. Because the technology that is used in making it and delivering it to the customer.

Advantages of WAN Network

There are some advantages of WAN network which are given below –

WAN network can cover most area. We can connect this network from one country to another and can even connect the whole world which is called Internet.

➤ With the help of WAN network, we can share our software resources and other resources as well.

➤ In WAN network, we can store all the files and data in one computer which is called server and then all other connected computers can also receive data from this server.

➤ This network has high bandwidth.

➤ In today's time, everyone is working online, so because of the WAN network, the Internet is there, so anyone can do their own business online.

➤ This network is spread all over the world, with the help of which we can communicate with any person in the world like whatsApp, Facebook, etc. Also we can do video chat in addition to text messages.

To take advantage of WAN network, you can use the following Apps - open the below link and get complete information: 

Disadvantages of WAN Network

There are also few disadvantages of WAN which are given below –

➤ Due to the huge size of the WAN network, it is also very difficult to maintain the network.

➤ WAN network has more security problem than LAN network and MAN network.

➤ The initial cost of setting up a WAN network is high.

➤ WAN network is very large and complex, then it is very difficult to setup.

➤ This network is not very secure, so to make our network more secure, we have to buy products like antivirus.

Now let us also discuss here what is the basic difference between WAN network and LAN network.

Difference between WAN and LAN

I am going to tell the difference between WAN and LAN network with the help of a table, for this you all will not have to read huge and long sentences.


Many different forms of area networks like MAN, FTTX, Access Network etc. but one of the most common networks outside the WAN is LAN. If you tell WANs it means network exist globally, LANs exist over a limited area, without being connected to a physical location through the use of a leased network provider. LANs can be used to access more WANs (such as the Internet), but only within the area that the LAN infrastructure can reach.

WAN Technologies

Following types of technologies are used in WAN networks-
➤Packet switching
➤TCP/IP protocol suite
➤Overlay network
➤Packet over SONET/SDH (PoS)
➤Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
➤Frame Relay

Packet switching

A method of data transmission is the switching of Packet in which a message is divided into many parts, called packets, which are sent independently, in triplicate, on the optimal route for each packet, and then collected to the destination. Each packet consists of a fragment part, called the payload, and an identifying header that includes destination and reconfiguration information. To check for packet corruption, packets are sent in triplicate. Each packet is verified in a process that compares and verifies that at least two copies match. When the verification fails, a request is made to resend the packet.

TCP/IP protocol suite

TCP/IP is a protocol suite of basic communication protocols used to interconnect network devices with other computer/device networks, TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.


A router is a networking device is is used for the interconnection between LANs to form a WAN and as such is referred to as a WAN device. The purpose of IP routers is to determine IP addresses  where to forward packets. A numeric label which is called IP address is a  assigned to each connected network device.

Overlay network

It is a data communication technology in which to build a virtual network on top of another network used a software, usually a hardware and cabling infrastructure. Usually this is not available on the underlying network, it used to support applications or security capabilities.

Packet over SONET/SDH

Also it is a communication protocol and it is used primarily for WAN transport. It defines how point-to-point links communicate when using optical fiber and SONET or SDH communication protocols.

Multiprotocol Label Switching - MPLS

MPLS is a network routing-optimization technology. Data directed from one node to another through short path instead of long network addresses, to avoid time-consuming table lookups.


ATM is a switching technology that was used in early data networks but is not used due to IP-based technology, it can also be said that IP-based technology has replaced ATM. We all know that ATM uses asynchronous TDM techniques to encode data into small fixed sized packet. So ATM removed by today's IP-based Ethernet technology which uses variable packet sizes for data.

Frame Relay

Frame relay is a technology for transmitting data between end points of a LAN or WAN. Using the packet switching method it specifies the physical and data-link layers of digital telecommunication channels. 

Frame relay packages the data into frames and sends it through a shared frame relay network. Each frame contains all the necessary information to make it to its destination. Frame relay was originally intended to transport data across the ISDN infrastructure of telecommunications carriers, but today it is used in many other networking contexts.

WAN Connection Types

Continuous demand of data around the world continues to grow at an alarming rate, network providers of various sizes network like LAN and WAN are beginning to see pressure on what their networks can support. This has resulted data optimization and continuous improvement to increase data collection, reduce bandwidth, and consolidate servers, among other things.

Because WANs are so widespread, modern organizations are eager for a more customized version of the WAN connection. Software-defined WAN (SD-WAN) is one solution organizations are beginning to turn to, as it can help reduce serious traffic problems in sharing and disseminating data information.

SD-WANs use smart software that can monitor the performance of different WAN connections and then appropriately allocate data to the right connections for the type of traffic that users require.

For example, a telecom operator may have many different forms of WAN networks – from email and conference calls to data sharing and dedicated server networks – and SD-WANs typically use these by choosing the appropriate channels to funnel the data. All help to reduce stress from the connections.

Perhaps in coming year data demand will grow more rapidly, so more advanced technology of WAN can to be developed. Even now, NASA is working on building an interplanetary Internet for future exploration, and it is currently using a Disruptive Tolerance Network (DTN) for the International Space Station. The biggest challenge will be speed of data transfer, if greater distance between two nodes, the data transfer rate may be slow from node A to node B.

We should not hesitate to say that in today's era WANs have become an essential part of human communication and business relationships, and as the world continues to grow, WANs can replace and develop new forms of technology over time.

Purpose of WAN Connection

Suppose if WAN connections didn’t exist in the telecom network than  organizations would be isolated to some parts of geographic regions. LANs would allow organizations to work within their network, but growth to outside areas – either individual cities or even individual countries – would not be possible as the cost of common infrastructure would be prohibitive for most telecom operators.

If an telecom company grow and become an international, it is possible only due to WANs network to communicate, share information, and stay connected between branches and other countries. When telecom employees go for work, the WAN network allows them to access the information they need to do their works. Due to availability of WAN network telecom operators share the information with customers as well as with shared telecom operators, such as B2B clients or customers.

However, as we have already discussed above that WANs also provide an essential service to the public. University students can rely on WAN to access library databases or university research. And every day, people rely on WAN for communication, bank, shop etc.

Last Word

Dear friends, I have tried my best to provide complete information about the WAN to you, now it is to tell you whether I have succeeded in my attempt or not? If you are from Telecom Sector, then you have to answer a question- Are NLD/LDN and WAN the same network or different? How did you like this article - WAN, comment me and share it with others so that others can also take advantage of this information. For more watch below video.

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