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Why Required Ethernet Services?

Why Required Ethernet Services : In this article, we will discuss about Ethernet services.What is Ethernet? Why is Ethernet required? And how Ethernet works? In this article I will try to cover about all issues related to Ethernet. Actually Ethernet is now the most popular network technology in the world. It offers speeds ranging from 10 Mbit/s to 10 Gbit/s. More and more users would now like to interconnect high-speed LANs via MANs and WANs.

Ethernet has brought about a true revolution in the world of local area networks (LANs). Due to technical advances, the requirements imposed on these networks continue to grow. As terminal equipment becomes more powerful and applications consume more bandwidth, they generate significant load requirements. Performance bottlenecks are being handled nowadays by boosting speeds from 10 Mbit/s to 10 Gbit/s in LANs.

Why Metro Ethernet?

In today’s marketplace, the cost of bandwidth has dropped considerably. Network operators are now facing the problem that the cost of delivering services is too high and there is no way to reduce these costs using existing technology and network structures. Many are seeking new, improved solutions and approaches to further reduce the cost of maintaining and operating their networks. End users want services to be made available faster and they also want more control over the network capacity that they are paying for.
Why Metro Ethernet services required
Metro Ethernet Services

Features of Carrier Grade Ethernet 

Carrier Ethernet is the technology of choice for most carriers in the metropolitan area. Most tier 1 and tier 2 carriers are evaluating the possibility of Carrier Ethernet deployments, and some of them have already embarked on massive deployment. In compare to any other carrier technology Carrier Ethernet has a  lower CAPEX. It is less expensive than ATM,

TDM or IP. Service editing requires no truck roll – the fact that the same physical interface can provide services with variable bandwidth (from 0 to 100/1000 Mbps) in unlimited granularity implies that changes can be made in a service without sending a technician to edit the service profile at the remote customer's site. The emergence of triple-play services generates a need for large amounts of bandwidth, which should be provided with QoS and resilience.

➤Support of all services in the metro area
➤Flexible allocation of the services –TV, video, voice, Internet, data traffic
➤Assignment of QoS
➤Bandwidth guaranteed for SLAs
➤Failure safety of SLAs
➤Subscriber identification
➤End to end monitoring Troubleshooting and debugging.

Carrier-class Ethernet and User expectations

Carrier-class Ethernet is a data-oriented technology that is based on fiber optical transport paths. Optical metro networks are expected to become a very flexible distribution platform capable of providing very large bandwidths similar to Gigabit Ethernet. On the other hand, Metro networks provide fine interface granularity (1 Mbit/s, 2 Mbit/s, 10 Mbit/s) depending on the user profile.

Carrier-class Ethernet is intended to close the gap between LANs and WANs. This is providing some competition for the older ATM/SDH and E1 technologies since companies can now purchase more bandwidth at a lower cost with the benefit of a granular price structure. This type of Ethernet services allows them to select and pay for only the bandwidth they required.

User expectations
–Reduction in equipment costs
•Attractive price-to-performance ratio
–High availability
•Fast troubleshooting in case of problems
–End-to-end QoS features
•Guaranteed bandwidth with quality parameters
–Provision of high-speed ports 10Mbit/s – 10Gbit/s
–Fine data speed granularity
•Scalability based on requirements
•Fast bandwidth expansion when required
–Low delay and few packet losses
•No modification / adaptation of user packets

Ethernet: A growing marketplace

Ethernet growing requirement in marketplace
Ethernet services for market place

Ethernet is now the most popular network technology in the world. It offers speeds ranging from 10 Mbit/s to 10 Gbit/s. More and more users would now like to interconnect high-speed LANs via MANs and WANs.

Larger corporations are looking for solutions that will allow them to link their branch offices in a cost-effective manner. Current layer 3 VPN solutions for metro area applications are very costly when it comes to implementing a secure, private network architecture using MAN/WAN infrastructures. In addition, such approaches are not optimal for Ethernet data traffic.

The existing backbone (transport) and access areas have now been joined by a newcomer: The metro area. It encompasses metropolitan areas and major cities and is oriented towards handling significant changes in the traffic characteristics and overall requirements. The metro area is positioned between the conventional backbone and access areas. Various solutions are currently under discussion involving combinations of layer 1 and layer 2.

Managed Ethernet services

Metro Ethernet is expected to mean the end of conventional networks. Whatever is now still being transported using separate networks will soon be transported via a common network. Through single large network Voice, data and video will all be transported.
Managed Ethernet services
Ethernet Services in different mode 

Due to ongoing advances in this technology, Ethernet can now be put to use beyond the limits of LANs. The demand for communications between different corporate offices is being met in a straightforward manner by connecting LANs to the wide area network (WAN) via Ethernet interfaces.

Actually Ethernet significantly reduces interface costs because protocol conversion is not required. The provider’s transport platform is fully transparent for end users. Ethernet Service between the two end points provides a transparent layer 1 transport technology which is used by a layer 2 Ethernet connection.

Customer benefits include cost savings since less network components are needed, as well as usage of switches instead of routers and simpler IT management as soon as Ethernet technology is deployed at all of the access points.

On the carrier end, investments must be handled in a very cost-effective manner. A simple and efficient transport solution is needed to achieve any cost benefits. It is also necessary to integrate existing network architectures into the Ethernet service.

Hub and spoke technology

Hub and spoke technology
Ethernet Service Hub and Spoke technology

Most of the point-to-point connections used in metro LANs work based on hub and spoke technology. All of the connections from external sites pass via the center. There, the most important services are normally set up for access by all parties. Data traffic is intentionally consolidated in this central area.

If several external sites wish to access corporate data at the same time, then bandwidth can become tight. The more external sites that need to be connected, the more point-to-point connections that are required. In addition, for a new connection (spoke), the hub and the spoke equipment must also be reconfigured. Whenever the hub is unavailable, the entire corporate network will be down.

Multipoint-to-multipoint connections can be used to solve such problems. Data exist only once in the network and did not need to follow a path via the center when intended for users in other external sites.Transparently connect all of the external sites in a corporation can be used Multipoint-to-multipoint connections. Data are forwarded based on the Ethernet MAC addresses.

Broadband Ethernet services

Any new broadband application has its own unique requirements that it makes of the transport network. Future peer-to-peer applications will require these bandwidths along with guaranteed transmission behavior in order to provide real-time capabilities.
Broadband Ethernet services
Ethernet services in Broadband

No matter whether a video transmission involves broadcast, multicast or unicast packets, each of these communication formats has its own unique physical and protocol-specific requirements, which must be met to handle the task as best as possible. More and more, today’s Ethernet LAN technology is turning into an extension for carriers.

This means that transmissions can function as pure layer 2 applications via a transport network. Ethernet system mechanisms such as layer 2 VPNs or broadcast applications will then be available as services for end users.
The provision of physical Ethernet interfaces alone is not enough to operate multiservices.

Availability, redundancy in case of problems and central manageability are needed to meet the future demand for triple play services. A common Ethernet network extending from the access area all the way to the core area is needed to meet these objectives.

SDH transport networks

The introduction of the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) at the end of the 1980s served as the basis for a uniform global transport network that allows efficient and economical network management by the carriers. Networks can be adapted with no problems to meet the growing demand for “bandwidth-hungry” applications.
SDH transport networks
Ethernet Services through SDH network 

The SDH standard is now more or less universal for wide area networks. This standard made a sizable contribution to the enormous expansion of global communications over the past decade. Its most important contribution is clearly its ability to facilitate interoperability between solutions from different manufacturers. 

In the ITU standards, SDH is part of the synchronous optical network (SONET) hierarchy. A further benefit of SDH is the extremely high degree of stability that can be attained in networks that are structured using the standard. This includes, in particular, fast restoration after problems occur. The synchronous transmission standard is, however, very complex and part of this complexity is due to the fact that it was developed with telecommunication systems for telephony in mind.

If we look back a few years, we see that most traffic in long-distance networks involved telephony while data traffic was significantly less important. At some point, there was a realization that data traffic would becoming increasingly important, but the extent to which data traffic would prevail was still underestimated.

Ethernet Over Optical Networks 

We can assume that the core of the global network are on the Long-haul networks.Lon-haul networks are dominated by a small group of large transnational and global carriers, long-haul networks connect the MANs. Application of these type of network is transport, so their primary concern is capacity. Networks based on SONET and SDH technology are experiencing fiber exhaust as a result of high bandwidth demand.

DWDM is an optical based technology used to increase bandwidth over existing fiber or new fiber. We are already familiar that  DWDM technology works by combining and transmitting multiple signals simultaneously at different wavelengths on the same fiber. Through this technology one fiber is transformed into multiple virtual fibers. 

So, if telecom operator to multiplex eight OC -48 signals into one fiber, telecom operator would increase the carrying capacity of that fiber from 2.5 Gb/s to 20 Gb/s. by the use of DWDM technology a single fibers have been able to transmit data at speeds up to 400Gb/s. Independence protocol -and bit-rate of DWDM is a key advantage. DWDM-based networks can transmit data across IP, ATM, SONET / SDH and Ethernet, and can handle bit rates between 100 Mbit / s and 2.5 Gb / s.

Hence DWDM-based networks carry different types of traffic at different speeds over an optical channel. Capacity of WDM greater but smaller than DWDM, A modest number of channels provided by CWDM technology , typically eight or less, to be stacked in the 1550 nm region of the fiber called the C-Band. To reduce the cost, CWDMs use uncooled lasers with a relaxed tolerance of ± 3 nm. Channel spacing used by  DWDM systems where as close to 0.4 nm, CWDM uses a spacing of 20 nm.

–Many wavelengths in the visual window
–Channel separations: 0.4 nm-0.8 nm (10 Gbit/s at 160, channels)/0.05 nm (2.5 GBit/s at 1024 channels)
– Very high capacities
– Large distances
– Very expensive 

–Larger channel separations as in the case of DWDM
–Channel separations of 20 nm
–usage in the metro area
–Cheaper lasers as in the case of DWDM

Metro Ethernet services

Metro Ethernet represents the future of the interconnected world and basically represents nothing more than broadband access for the masses. Metro Ethernet has already been successfully tested in many countries and should soon be a global standard. 
Metro Ethernet services
Ethernet services

In the interest of achieving this objective, Metro Ethernet uses open standards that anyone can freely access. A MAN is characterized by higher data speeds. The scope of these networks tends to be greater than is the case with LANs. Fiber optical cables are the preferred transmission medium. The aim is to achieve easy interconnectivity with other networks with high transmission capacities.

One basic prerequisite for networking is a fiber optical connection to the home. Active components are used for conversion from fiber to Ethernet. In the home, a network based on structured category 5 cabling is installed which can serve as a basis for multiple network connections.

These connections are then used to provide the desired services to the customer. Telephone, TV and Internet services can all be provided via a single access point. With the current state-of-the-art, it is theoretically possible for each and every household to have a 10 Gbit/s connection. Using virtual LANs (V-LANs), the different ports are distinguished virtually so as to ensure proper security for all data. 

➤Metro Ethernet services
•Ethernet-ready customer equipment
•Powerful user network interface
•High-speed Ethernet backbone 

Ethernet virtual connections
–One or more standardized Ethernet
interfaces between CE and
Metro Ethernet network.

Ethernet Traffic management

The Ethernet streams transmitted on the port might have different bandwidth and class of service requirements. Within the overall bandwidth of the customer access, different resources can be assigned to the service types. Using traffic management, this is set up by configuring a committed information rate (CIR) and a peak information rate (PIR) with the associated burst size. This sort of resource allocation makes it possible to offer a greater number of services to the customer. 
Traffic management
Ethernet Services

If services were transported without such additional management only on the basis of pure layer 2, there would be a risk of packet losses in case of multiple concurrent IP/TCP streams. This would significantly decrease the data throughput for the applications due to the long response times.

Bandwidth profiles

Policing and shaping are two techniques used to regulate the flow of traffic. They are used to ensure that a flow or a transmitter complies with the relevant traffic agreement. These two techniques differ in terms of the behavior in case the agreement parameters are violated. 
Ethernet Bandwidth profiles details
Ethernet services

A policer will generally discard packets while a shaping algorithm will delay the packets using a buffer. Queuing techniques are used to compensate for load peaks in network segments. When a network segment gets overloaded, special buffers are activated in devices such as routers and switches using queuing technology. 

The corresponding network element is told how to handle the data. Traffic shaping involves mechanisms for controlling the output traffic on an interface of a router or switch. These mechanisms handle overload control by forcing compliance with bandwidth limits for certain traffic classes. Depending on its class, traffic can be adapted to the requirements in the flow direction in order to diminish the effects of bottlenecks in the topology due to bandwidth variations.

Bandwidth profiles for Ethernet services 

A best effort service represents the simplest form of data transmission. There is no guarantee that the data streams will be transported over a longer period of time. There are various service attributes. Some of them are used for the UNI interface while others apply to the entire EVC. 
Bandwidth profiles for Ethernet services
Ethernet Services

The traffic parameters characterize the bandwidth and the throughput for the corresponding service. 

Best effort: No reserved bandwidth is provided. Data are transported without applying any quality parameters. Delays and other effects can occur depending on the current load on the links and the network elements. 

➤UNI & EVC traffic parameters
–Best effort
–Committed information rate (CIR)
–Committed burst size (CBS)
–Excess information rate (EIR)
–Excess burst size (EBS)
Performance parameters
–Jitter, packet loss and delay

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