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Maximum Communication Range Of Underground Cable

Maximum Communication Range Of Underground Cable : Often a question is posed to all of us that what is the maximum communication range of underground cable? Not all of us are able to answer this very often. Currently 6 Km. length optical cable drums are mostly used in optical networks. Then we join the optical fiber cable into a chamber called the splice chamber / joint chamber. In this way, by the joining of optical fiber cable, we achieve the required distance.

But a question then comes up, how long does this communication range of underground cable? Suppose network requirement after 110 Km of length, can this underground cable communicate upto 110 Km directly? Would there be no need for any network equipment between 110 Km. distances? Is only underground optical cable enough for such distance communication? First we try to know some things.
Maximum Communication Range Of Underground Cable
Optical fiber communication range

Type of Node of Underground Cable Network

The nodes of the underground cable are determined by business needs. According to their planning time frame, there are two types of underground optical nodes.

1. Optical Service Node : An Optical Service Node is a node wherein telecommunication connectivity end-services must be provided. The location of those nodes is fixed and predetermined, and thus, can’t be changed during the OSP design stage.

2. Optical Expansion Node : An Optical Expansion Node is actually a virtual
node (non-existent), addressed to provide telecommunication connectivity end-services in the future to an upcoming network expansion that will start from that location. On the ground of project implementation, an OEN is an abstract network entity usually on top of an existent underground civil network infrastructure, such as a manhole or vault. By its virtual nature, the OEN location can be modified at some extent during the OSP design stage, whenever a more suitable alternative location exists nearby, but those changes have to be validated by Network Planning.

Now i am going to tell something very special,Why use nodes in long-distance underground optical networks,And because of this node, how does the underground optical network communicate over such a distance. If the node is not used for underground cable network, communication can never achieved over such a distance.

Optical Regeneration Nodes

Long-Distance underground optical networks also contain another type of Optical Nodes, called Optical Regeneration Nodes. which are required to restore the quality of the optical signal and, thus, they are not driven by business needs. By the use of DCU (Dispersion Compensation Unit) underground optical signals have to be corrected or regenerated at every certain distance, wherever those fiber impairments degrade the signal quality below a specific threshold. We also call such a node a repeater. Now I will try to give some information about repeater.

What is Repeater and how does it work

There are some problems in underground optical networks that cause difficulties in network operation.Such as degradation of signal strength, To eliminate this problem,network equipment used that is called the repeater. The only function of a repeater is to not allow the signal to weaken or degrade, and regenerate the signal.

Repeater is used to get better and efficient signal length. The repeater of an underground optical fiber network consists of a photocell, a amplifier, a light emitting diode, or an infra-red emitting diode. Every Repeater should be between 10-18 Km.

Communication Range Of Underground Cable

From the optical regeneration node or repeater, we understand that Only by the underground optical fiber cable, long distance communication can not be achieved. If communication is to be received over a long distance from the underground optical cable, then the help of repeater or regeneration node will have to be taken. 

May be receive communication by underground cable up to a distance of 20-30 km without repeater or regeneration node,There may be a significant amount of signal degradation and noise even at this distance.

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