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FTTH Operations and Maintenance Guideline

FTTH Operations and Maintenance Guideline: Today in this article I will try to explain the detail overview of the FTTH operations and maintenance and aspects of FTTH network infrastructure. While all over the world each FTTH network have the different parameters,design are differ and operate in different environments and conditions according to the country, operation and maintenance best practices’ consideration remains a common requirement.

During the FTTH network construction, a probable requirement of the building contract is to ensure that as little or no disturbance within the FTTH area occurs which affects the general public and the surrounding environment. It means do not face unnecessary obstacles in the FTTH Building areas. Before the construction of FTTH network required careful planning and execution,it will  ultimately encourage the deployment of efficient building methods to the benefit of the FTTH business case.
FTTH Operations and Maintenance tips and solutions
FTTH Operation and maintenance tips

FTTH Network's Deployment Planning Guidelines

We can consider that in the telecom sector optical fiber cable is more reliable transmission medium.Optical fiber cable has been working for a long time, but there may be a sudden flaw in it. It means optical fiber cable is still susceptible to unexpected breakdowns that require mobilization and rapid and efficient 
repairs. So to fix the FTTH network problems required immediate access.Maintenance procedures must be planned in advance and contractual arrangements put in place to ensure appropriate manpower is available when needed.Now we will learn in detail about the planning guidelines-

Site control and installation operation planning

If you are Working with underground duct systems or sideway installations or poles require ultimate careful planning and often cause disruption to traffic therefore liaison with local authorities is very necessary and suitable controls with warning banner must be put in place.

Before starting work on FTTH Operations and Maintenance, it is very important to have adequate caution board, warning tape and tools.Also required accurate informative documents of FTTH route,duct details and optical fiber cable details.

 Operations and Maintenance General management considerations

Telecom engineer/technician must have the familiarity and experience with underground, knowledge of aerial duct and cable network systems is necessary as is respecting for the best practices and conducting work flow studies.

Liaising with local authorities and careful planning of the installation of the FTTH network will lead to an efficient and safe operation.A full appreciation of locally located power supply services must be obtained from the local authorities and also through the use of on-site confirmation detection equipment.

General considerations of safety for FTTH Work

In the area where work is to be done, there must have complete safety.Cover the entire zone from the warning tape, which is visible from a distance,use caution sign board,use proper caution sign board,use a copy of authority permission letter with site engineer contact number. Use caution board proper in safety zones using marker cones, and traffic signals should be organised in proper manner.

Possible traffic disruption should be coordinated with local authorities. All MH/HH and cable chambers should be trace out and those intended for access should be tested for flammable and toxic gases before entry.

According to the local area environment, full air and oxygen tests should be carried out before entry inside the Manhole, must use proper ventilation if necessary. While working underground for the FTTH project, all technician/labors must have continuous monitoring gas warning equipment in operation at all times – flammable, toxic, carbon dioxide and oxygen levels.

If flammable gas is detected, the local Fire Service should be contacted immediately. Before starting the work all existing electrical cables should be inspected for possibility of damage and exposed conductors.

General considerations about constructions and equipments

A complete survey of the total underground duct system used for the FTTH network or aerial plant should be carried out prior to installation. High water levels in cable chambers and sewage/water tunnels will be unacceptable. Before FTTH work it must be pumped out. FTTH network ducts must be checked for damage/sharp bends/kinks and potential obstructions.

Prior to installation of optical fiber cable in the duct sections using a test mandrel or brush is recommended.Manholes should be checked to ensure their suitability for coiling slack cables, there should be a provision to support optical fiber cable in MH / HH and to mounting splice joint closures. Manholes/HH should be checked to ensure their suitability for coiling slack cables, provision of cable supports and space for mounting splice joint closures.

A plan should be established for the optimal positioning of the cable payoff, mid-point fleeting and cable take-up/ winching equipment. The same also applies to those cables that are to be blown into the duct and which might require a blowing head and compressor equipment.

Fleeting the cable at mid sections using a “figure of 8” technique can greatly increase the pulled installation section distance using long cable lengths. Preparation is needed to make sure these locations are suitable for cable fleeting.

Ribbed, corrugated ducts and ducts with a low-friction liner are designed to reduce cable/duct friction during installation. Smooth non-lining ducts may require a suitable cable lubricant.

Pulling grips are used to attach the pulling rope to the end of the cable. These are often
mesh/weave based or mechanically attached to the cable end minimising the diameter and thus space of duct used. A fused swivel device should also be applied between the cable-pulling grip and pulling rope.

The swivels are designed to release any pulling generated torque thus protecting the cable. A mechanical fuse protects the cable from excess pulling forces by breaking a sacrificial shear pin. These pins are available in different tensile values.

During the cable installation a pulling winch with a suitable capacity must be used and fitted with a dynamo-meter to monitor tension during pulling.Chevrolet, capstan and quadrant block should be used to maintain the minimum turning diameter of the cable from the cable, penstoff and duct entry and to the take-up device.Communication radios, mobile phones or similar should be available at all locations of the operation.

Uses of midpoint or assist winches are recommended in cases where the cable tensile load is approaching its limit and could expedite a longer pull section.Use of a cable payoff device, a reel or drum trailer, is also recommended.

For air applications, suitable equipment such as bucket trucks should move forward. To work at the height, there is a need to respect specific safety instructions. Specific hardware cables and closures must be available for stability.

General considerations about FTTH cabling methods

➤Duct and microduct cabling for FTTH Network 
Duct installation and maintenance are relatively straightforward. Sometimes the cable can be dug Unknowingly; Therefore, the length of maintenance should be available at all times. Duct and burial cables can have similar constructions, in the latter there is more protection from the environment in which it is to be installed.

When calculating the route length, make allowance for jointing: typically 3-5m per joint will suffice.Space cable spare/slack loops at chamber positions of typically 20m. This will allow for mid-span access joints to be added at a later date.

Minimum bend radii (MBR) and maximum tensile load values for the cables must not be
exceeded. MBR is usually expressed as a multiplier of the cable diameter (e.g. 20xouter diameter-D) and it is normally defined as a maximum value and very suitable for the static and dynamic situations.

Static MBR is the minimum allowable bend value for the cable in operation, i.e. coiled within a manhole or chamber. The dynamic MBR value is the minimum allowable bend value for the cable under installation pulling conditions.

Pulling load of cable (pulling tension, N; or force, Kgf) values are generally specified for the short and long distances conditions. Short-term load values represent the maximum tension that can be applied to the cable during the installation process and long-term values represent the maximum tension that can be applied to the cable for the lifespan of the cable in service.

In cases where cables are to be installed by blowing, the cable and duct must be compatible for a blowing operation, therefore cable and duct supplier/s must be contacted for installation guidelines.

Direct buried cable for FTTH
Installation techniques achieved in FTTH network for burying cables can include open manual trenching, trenching by JCB or trencher, directional drilling/HDD and thrust boring etc. FTTH direct buried cable route must have minimum bend radii of cable and maximum pulling tensions for installation and long-term service conditions.

Ensure cable tension is monitored during burial and cable maximum limits are not exceeded.A full survey of the buried section will ensure an efficient installation operation.Cross over points with other services and utilities must be identified. All buried cables must be identified and marked for any future operation and maintenance.

Back-filling must ensure the cables are suitably protected from damage from large rocks e.g. sand. All back filling must be tamped to prevent future ground movement and settlement. Make soil hump on trench route.All surfaces must be restored to your country local standards.

FTTH Operation and maintenance guidelines

There are some key points of FTTH Operation and Maintenance, which should be kept in mind.We can say that without below mentioned key points, FTTH Operations and Maintenance is not possible.Now I would like to mention below the points that you have to keep in mind during the FTTH operations and maintenance.

fiber cable and duct records
marking key infrastructure items
complete documentation
identification of infrastructure elements subject to maintenance operations
minor maintenance list
plan for catastrophic network failure from external factors, such as accidental digging of
cable or duct

spare infrastructure items to be kept on hand in case of accident
location and availability of network records for the above provision of maintenance

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