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What is GPON ? How does it work?

What is GPON and how does it work? : In this article, I will discuss especially about GPON, we will try to know that what is GPON ? How does GPON work and what are the technical points in it? We can say that our increasing high bandwidth requirements brought GPON into existence. 

GPON emerge through various PON techniques such as APON, BPON, EPON and is finally standardize by IEEE & ITU. PON (Passive Optical Network technology) approach differs from most of the existing networks by its nature that is "passive" operation. Active networks like DSL, ADSL and VDSL have active components in the access network infrastructure, and in the customer premise equipment.
GPON and how does it work complete information
Technical Knowledge about GPON

What is GPON ?

GPON has only passive light transmission components in the access network with active components only in the central office and the customer premise equipment. At the central office the termination point is in Optical Line Terminal (OLT) equipment. At the customer optical network terminals or ONT is the termination point. Between OLT and ONT is the passive optical network, comprising fiber links and passive splitters.

Right now we are talking about GPON, so it is also important to point-out that GPON provides 2.5Mbps of bandwidth downstream and 1.25Gbps upstream shared by a maximum of 64 users.

You will be surprised to find this interesting information about GPON that GPON provides a 20 km reach with a 28dB optical budget using class B+ optics with a split ratio of 1:32. This reach can be extended to 30 km by limiting the splitting factor to a maximum of 1:16, or by the help of  C+ optics,this optical link can add up to 4 dB to the budget and extend optical reach up to 60 km. The 10G-EPON can also provide 20 km reach with a 29dB optical budget. To make it easier for you all to understand, below is a simple diagram of GPON, which you can see carefully.

A Simple Diagram of GPON Network
A Simple Diagram of GPON Network


My telecom friends often ask the question, are GPON and XG-PON the same system? I am not going to discuss this topic in great detail right now but through a below diagram I can explain very well what is the difference between the GPON and XG-PON systems.

The standards have been defined to allow both GPON and XG-PON to coexist on the same fiber by using different wavelengths for both solutions.
GPON and XG-PON on the same fibre at different wavelength
GPON and XG-PON at different wavelength 

Benefits of GPON - Gigabit Passive Optical Networks 

➤GPON provide high bandwidth capacity to the customer end or user end.
➤Supports many advanced services for revenue growth.
➤GPON has lower plant maintenance and operating costs.
➤Near cost parity with low-bandwidth copper-based network.
➤GPON features long reach without amplification.
➤In GPON there are no active electronics in OSP equipment.
➤Longer physical and economic lifespan.
➤Fast & quick deployment.
➤GPON can be installed and upgraded very easily.
➤Often in GPON allows small diameter & light weight cables thus small space occupancy.
➤Secure & immune to electromagnetic interference.

In FTTH system signals are combined, multiplexed, converted to light signals & interfaced to a single fiber by the Optical Line Terminal (OLT) placed in the exchange. The signals are transported & distributed to the end users, directly or through splitters, where the signals are converted through ONT to electrical signals.

FTTH network is very similar in design and layout to the copper network configurations and elements. In comparison, it consist of Feeder (primary) and Distribution (secondary) network, Fiber Distribution Terminal (Cross connect cabinet), Fiber Access Terminal (Distribution Point) and Drop fiber (buried service wires).


GPON can be defined in the below mentioned four basic recommendations.
➥G.984.4 defines the OMCI on the system.
➥Data rate 2.488Gbps download per GPON port
➥Data rate 1.224 Gbps uplink GPON port
➥Distance ranges 10-50 Kms.

It is important to read the given link to understand GPON well and completely.

Friends, how is this article " What is GPON and how does it work? ", tell me by commenting.All efforts have been made by Technopediasite to give complete and important information to our telecom friends.If you are satisfied with all the information given, then try to convey it to others.

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