How to install Hand-holes? - Technopediasite

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Friday, March 22, 2019

How to install Hand-holes?

How to install Hand-holes: Hand-holes are relatively small pre-cast reinforced concrete chambers, utilized as breakdown points, from primary cables to secondary cable distribution joints and cabinet terminating points etc.Hand-holes shall be constructed in a recognized and approved manner from top quality materials in accordance with the appropriate international standards.

The concrete shall have a minimum compressive strength of 27.5 MPa. The reinforcing steel bars, (re bars) shall be round deformed bars with a minimum tensile strength of 300 MPa. Wire mesh giving equivalent strength may be substituted. Design of man-holes and hand-holes shall be as per approved for construction drawings issued by Company.



hand-hole installation for optical fiber cable
Hand-hole work

Purpose of Man-holes/hand-holes


Man-holes/hand-holes shall be provided to facilitate optical fiber cable blowing, jointing and storing loops of fiber cable for future use during maintenance activities. There is no difference in construction of man-hole and hand-holes. They are named so to distinguish the functions they perform. Man-hole is used for jointing of fiber and joint closures will be installed inside the man-hole chamber. The hand-holes shall be used for only storing extra optical fiber cable loops


In case of inter-city routes, man-holes shall be installed along the route at a spacing not exceeding 4km. In between two man-holes, hand-holes shall be installed. The spacing between two adjacent man-hole/hand-holes and hand-holes/man-hole shall not exceed 1km. Hand-holes shall be rectangular of square as per intra-city specifications. Hand-holes body and cover ring shall be suitable for corresponding loading. Hand-holes shall be of adequate size to accommodate number of joint closures and associated loops for each OFC specified in approved for construction drawings.


In general and specifically for inter-city routes, the hand-holes shall be installed such that the lid would be at the level of ground surface. But some telecom operators prefer hand-holes lid buried at least 500mm below the natural ground surface.


Hand-holes shall be installed over well compacted ground and over a layer of concrete base.The entry of the duct into hand-holes shall be smooth and at its floor level. Sharp bends to force the entry shall be avoided. Ducts shall enter the hand-holes in a single layer and in the sequence.


All openings after installation of ducts shall be closed with cement grout or equivalent method to prevent entry of rodents, snakes, insects etc.



Size of hand-holes


Size of hand-holes depends upon the telecom operators. Telecom companies use hand-holds according to their site location and areas. Hand-holes are available of different sizes. The standard hand-holes size has inner dimensions- Length(mm)- 1800, width(mm)-560, depth(mm)-700, maximum number of ducts-04, number of covers-03. Hand-holes available in single lid,double lid and three lid structure. Hand-holes covers for intra-city routes shall be suitable for grade MD-10 or HD-20 or EHD 35. Generally covers of MH and hand-holes on footpaths / non carriage way areas shall be suitable for grade MD-10. you can check as per your company requirement.


Hand-holes also available in size- As per company construction guide line.

Hand-holes Frames: Hand-holes frames shall be made from steel angle having dimensions of 70mm x 70mm x 6 mm arranged to be solidly retained to the reinforced concrete shell, it is to be complete with two cross support inverted T-Bars (Removable Dividers) matched to the frame, giving satisfactory support to the covers.

Hand-holes Covers: Hand-holes covers shall be made from cast iron with overall dimensions of 600 mm x 700 mm. The covers shall be made such they may removed or replaced , singly or altogether i.e. fully interchangeable with each other. Two equi-elongated holes situated at diametrically opposed balanced points shall be provided in each cover to give lifting facilities by means of lifting keys or hooks.

Hand-holes Metal Accessories: Hand-holes metal accessories shall include , cabinet base blanking plate, bolts, nuts, lock washers, spacing washers pulling-in eyelets, sump hole grill cover.


Hand-holes Sump: Hand-holes sump diagonally opposite from cabinet base opening shall be a recess 300 mm x 300 mm x 75 mm arranged to receive the grill summa cover.

We also familiar by the name of hand-holes TYPE-1 hand-holes and TYPE-2 hald-holes, Type-1 Length-600 mm, Width- 6 00 mm, Height- 800 mm. Type-2 hand-holes Length-1250 mm, Width- 600 mm, Height- 800 mm. Type-1 hand-holes called one cover hand-holes and Type-2 hand-holes called two cover hand-holes.

TWO-COVER HAND-HOLES


A two-cover hand-holes is a standard hand-holes to be used for fiber networks. The dimensions of the two-cover hand-holes are 1250mm length x 600mm width for base, with 800mm for height.The two-cover hand-holes must have knock-out windows for duct entrance with dimensions of 300mm x 100 mm each.



SINGLE-COVER HAND-HOLES




A single-cover hand-holes can be used for pulling/blowing purposes when there is no splice
closure required, or when the area is limited and there is not enough space for placing a two cover hand-holes.The single-cover hand-holes must have knock-out windows for duct entrance with dimensions of 300mm x 100 mm each.

construction details of single cover and double cover hand-hole
Hand-hole structures

Load factors of Hand-holes


Hand-holes walls and covers shall withstand and evenly distributed load of not less than 10 KN/ M2.They are also required to withstand a concentrated load, of not less than 200 KN/M2 at any point, plus an impact factor of 50 %. Hand-holes pulling-in eyelets shall required to withstand pulling forces of not less than 30 KN in any direction.

The cover shall be supported in a standard frame and cover supports while a load of 300 kN is applied without shock through a medium of 200 mm , diameter bearing block faced with a 25 mm .thick pad of rubber or other resilient material .

The bearing block shall be sufficiently rigid to ensure that the load on the cover is equally distributed over the full area of the block. The cover or frame or cover support shall have failed the point load test if any cracks , or deformation or damage is visible on any surface.

Tensile Strength Test-Min 200 Mpa, Transverse Test-Min 200 Mpa, steel parts tensile strength-Not less than 325 Mpa , Not more than 800 Mpa.

Hand-holes Hardware


All parts of the Hand-holes Hardware shall be free from burrs , sharp edges , and projections likely to injure the workman. All Steel parts shall be free from brittle steel .Any steel part when struck vigorously and sharply with a 0.9 Kg . Hammer shall show no fracture of the steel.

Precast Hand-hole hardware details
Hand-hole details
Constructions : It is better to each Hand-holes cover shall be have the telecom company logo, and a non –slip tread pattern cast centrally on its upper surface.Each hand-holes cover shall have two eleogated holes situated at diametrically opposed balance points which are appropriated for lifting hooks. The cover shall be from injurious defects . The surfaces shall be free from fused on sand, and shall be smooth.

The covers assumes in three different shapes Circular , Square , and in Rectangular shapes. In all cases the logo shall be placed in centered within the space , and its height is a proportion of the size of the cover. If the diameter of a circular cover , or the width of a square or rectangular cover , is 1.5 meters , then the logo is 15 cm high.


The Hand-holes Frame shall consists of Four steel angle irons of size 70 X 70 X6 mm , two of which are 1842 mm . in length and two of which are 718 mm. In length. The steel shall be any commercially available steel that on ladle analysis contains not more than 0.04 % phosphorous or 0.05 % sulfur.



Polymer hand-holes-DP


The polymer hand-holes-DP shall be compatible with telecom operator installation requirements, and operation and maintenance standards and practices. The hand-holes shall be designed to allow multiple connection of 110 mm ducts and 50 mm sub-ducts around the body of the hand-holes.

The hand-holes, when installed below ground level, shall not rack or be moved in its position.Installation of the hand-holes shall require only simple hand-tools.All metal parts of the hand-holes shall be protected against corrosion.

The hand-holes shall be of high quality design, workmanship and finish. All components of the hand-holes shall be free of sharp edges or other defects that may detract from the service requirements of the equipment.

The hand-holes-DP shall be designed and have provisions for major components and parts.Frame shall be built on the body of the hand-holes- DP.

➥Hand-holes material: Polymer Concrete or Fiber Reinforced Polymer
➥Finish and Color: Light grey
➥Body Inside Dimensions, (mm) maximum: Length-600, Width- 600, Height- 800,
➥Body Wall Thickness: 10 mm (minimum)
➥Entry holes for ducts- for main ducts: Shall have four 115 mm diameter holes on each 2 opposite sides of the hand-holes & two holes in one side ( other sides ), to accommodate a total of (ten) 110 mm main ducts.
➥Entry holes for ducts- for sub ducts: Shall have six 55 mm diameter holes on each 2 opposite sides of the hand-holes, to accommodate a total of (twelf) 50 mm sub-ducts.


Frame Hand-holes


Material-Polymer Concrete or Fiber Reinforced Polymer.
Frame Outer Dimensions, (mm) maximum: Length-700 mm,Width-700 mm,Height-75 mm.
Assembly: The frame shall have 2 holes on each opposite side to accommodate a total of two 9 mm diameter stainless steel bolt.

Cover hand-holes 


Material-Polymer Concrete or Fiber Reinforced Polymer
Cover Outer Dimensions, (mm) maximum: Length-646 mm, Width-646 mm, Height- 50 mm.
Assembly: The cover shall be a separate and removable part of the hand-holes. The cover shall have 2 holes on each opposite side to accommodate a total of two 9 mm diameter stainless steel bolt.
Lifting System: The cover shall have two slots, equipped with lifting pin, on each opposite side of the cover. The slot shall accommodate the insertion of a 10 mm diameter lifting hook tool.

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