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What is the meaning of spectrum: Why is it necessary for us?

What is the meaning of spectrum: Why is it necessary for us: This is very interesting topic for telecom engineers.This topic will cover the meaning of spectrum and why is it necessary for us and telecom. By the way, spectrum involve in our everyday life, it is a very important part of our life. The question arises that this spectrum is finally what and how it affects the life of a common man.Today we will try to know about it in details.
These spectrum, which we can call radiation also. Some of them work very well. This does not harm us. Through these we see TV and radio. Our ears fall everyday. Telecom network system also work through spectrum and we use mobile phone.

Meaning of Spectrum and its importance
Meaning of Spectrum

Use of Spectrum in telecom sector

Mobile, satellite and television are all used in microwave and radio electromagnetic spectrum.Now the question arises how its business is used. In fact, the business use of any spectrum is decided on the length of the wave. How much is its frequency (Wavelength) and how much energy can take it far. The waves of the radio wave spectrum are quite long. This is used by telecom sector.

When we talk of spectrum, it usually means that radio wave are for telecom sector only. Our life play with the spectrum everyday, whether it is remote of the TV or microwave oven or sunshine. Spectrum is a small form of electromagnetic spectrum.This is called the radiation energy that surrounds the Earth. The main source of this electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is sun. Also, this energy also comes from stars and galaxies. Apart from this, this energy also gets mixed with radiative elements under the earth.

What is 2G-3G-4G Spectrum

Along with the expansion of the telecom sector, technology has also improved rapidly. These are the different steps of technical development. The 1G analog wireless was introduced in 1980, which was used in a car phone. 2G came in the 1990s, which brought GSM with it. Also, CDMA also came. Let you know that a unit of UNO has given separate bands of spectrum to all countries. No country will interfere with anyone's work.

Data transfer in 3G was fast and the network was also good but unfortunately it was unsuccessful around the world. Now 4G has arrived in all over the world. In addition to the voice calling being cleared, the speed of Internet has increased manifold compared to 3G. it is very easy to understand about the speed of 3G and 4G, it would take several hours for a movie to download through 3G. Right now, it is downloaded from 4G in a few minutes. Also, there is no buffering problem when watching videos.

Telecom companies have started the 5G trial with the implementation of multiple input multiple output technology. This will help them to launch the 5G service later on. Very soon 5G network is going to be launched all over the world.Even some countries also have  launched.

Among 1G-2G-3G and 4G the oldest of these is clearly 2G, while 4G is still evolving. These techniques were developed to take advantage of various bands, and this means that you can not use any band only on will. Bands can be roads, but only specific types of vehicles can travel on them. That's why your phone needs a modem that can work on multiple instances, so that it can connect to all bands, and transmit your voice, messages and data.

While 2G services were launched in India as 900MHz (and later 1800MHz, which is also being used for 4G), while 3G services ran in both 900MHz and 2100MHz in India. Initially, LTE needed a higher frequency for more data speeds, but technology advances made it possible to use 1800MHz.

2G,3G,4G and 5G mobile Generation and spectrum
Role of spectrum in Mobile Generation

Meaning of Spectrum

A spectrum is a situation that is not limited to a specific set of values, but across a continuation, it can be different without phases. After describing the rainbow of colors in visual light after passing through the prism, the word was first used scientifically in optics.

Our modern definition of spectrum began in the 1600s, when scientists used it to refer to the band of colors made of rays of light similar to rainbow. In physics, it is a term that describes the distribution of something like energy or atomic particles.

In this context the word refers to a series of spectrum radio-waves that are used for communication purposes. It includes FM or AM radio broadcasting which you hear on the way to work, and even other wireless forms of communication such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi.

The smartphone or any other devices you are using these radio waves to transmit data, and the difference is actually contained in specific frequencies in use, and of course, to convert those waves into something useful The technology to be used (whether it is the voice on the radio) (the text you read, or the webpage you load).

What you need to understand about spectrum is frequency - this is the frequency of the wave that you see in a second. The top wave is low-frequency, and so it repeats gradually. At the time when it repeats three, the bottom (high-frequency) wave repeats 10 times.

The high-frequency wave explicitly travels very far at the same time, but in a straight line, they both go far and far - so the high frequency wave requires very much energy to travel at the same distance. it occurs. On the other hand, for the first three waves of data in the first wave in space, you can fit 10 to the other, so you can pack more information in high-frequency, at the same time.

What is Bands

Therefore, the spectrum refers to the waves which are all around us all the time, are going through everything and that means it needs to be regulated. If anybody can broadcast signals at any frequency, then there will be total chaos, and it will cause a lot of interference, will effectively make the spectrum unusable for any meaningful communication.

Therefore, spectrum is divided into bands by the government. Look at the spectrum as a wide open field, and think of the bands as roads that are used to help guide the traffic in a regulated fashion.

It is necessary - to spread the metaphor - because otherwise traffic from a source (say, home Wi-Fi connection) can come in the way of traffic from your phone, which can result in an accident which can be done by doing everything Stops.

Therefore the spectrum is divided between different types of technologies - your AM and FM channels are all spread around 100MHz - 200MHz. In the Telecom sector spectrum starts from 800MHz, and goes up to 2300MHz. The band commonly used for cellular communication are 800MHz, 900MHz, 1800MHz, 2100MHz and 2300MHz.

According to the GSM technology, the most suitable and useful spectrum for telecommunications is in the 400 MHz to 4 GHZ range, and these bands are used globally for various telecommunications purposes. As a result, various parameters like GSM, WCDMA, and LTE were developed from time to time to use these bands; Creating an ecosystem of technology that operators can deploy. Each country controls the use of spectrum in its own area, but (by and large) uses the same technology worldwide, which means that you have roaming services.

When the policy came for the first time, the telecom spectrum was linked to an operator's license - the companies would be licensed to them and they would be allocated for certain years, after which they bid for renewal of their license. 

In the 2011 new norms removed the spectrum from the license, so now when the telecommunications operators ask to renew their license, they pay separately for the frequencies. In addition, we begin to meet in the unlicensed band used for technology like Wi-Fi and Bluetooth - Wi-Fi is used in 2.4GHz (2400 MHz) and transferring it to a 5 GHZ band started.

Is the important role of frequency

There are many different frequency bands auctions in different circles, and these bands give power to different technologies. But is there any difference between the band? Apart from the fact that communication technology was developed for some bands, for example what are the benefits of using - 1800 MHz for 4G on the 2300 MHz band?

As explained in the beginning, the higher the wave, the more energy is required. This is true for any type of spectrum, not just for telecom spectrum. For example, Wi-Fi networks in your home can be 2.4GHz or 5GHz, and both of these have side and cons. Less devices work at 5GHz, so at this frequency there is very little interference in your Wi-Fi network, but on the other hand, the range for 2.4GHz network will be better, and it will be less affected by the walls.

This is also true for usage frequencies in telecom. Use fewer frequencies less power, travel further, less affected by disturbances, and provide better coverage inside buildings. This means that you ideally want to work on the least power that is capable of carrying the necessary signals for the application you are running (voice / data / anything else). As far as the 4G deployment is concerned, there is a pleasant place between 1800MHz coverage and capacity.

Auction, allocation, and auction again

The last thing you need to know is about the system of auction. Like other natural resources, spectrum is also to be auctioned by the government by those companies which can then offer many services and retain their investments. At least, this plan was, although in reality, it has not always happened.

For example, we talk about India's telecom sector, In India the first spectrum auction was for the 900 MHz band, in 1994. Soon after, MTNL and BSNL entered the picture and the auction took place in 1997, 2000 and 2001 (last time for 1800 MHz). After this, the government decided to switch to an administrative allocation model, where it would choose the most suitable companies for the development of India's telecommunications infrastructure.

However, the result was that the spectrum was being licensed at low rates through auction. In 2008, the spectrum was allocated again in the 1800 MHz band, and in 2012, the Supreme Court asked the government to cancel most licenses, citing irregularities.

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